A421 - An Accurate Map of North and South Carolina with their Indian Frontiers
This beautiful and historic map by Henry Mouzon was first published in 1775 and was based upon several earlier surveys of the State. It was used by both the British and the Americans throughout the Revolutionary war.
- Henry Mouzon and Others
- h42" x w57"
The full title of the map states: 'Shewing in a different manner all the Mountains, Rivers, Swamps, Marshes, Bays, Creeks, Harbours, Sandbanks and Soundings on the Coasts. With The Roads and Indian Paths as well as The Boundary of Provincial Lines, The Several Townships and the other divisions of the land in both Provinces, the whole from actual surveys by Henry Mouzon and Others.'
The map was originally published by Robert Sayer and John Bennett and was included in The American Atlas produced by Thomas Jeffreys in 1775 (London). Sayer and Bennett published subsequent editions of the atlas in 1776 and 1782. William Faden also included the Mouzon map in The North American Atlas (London, 1777). Thomas Jefferys, Geographer to the King, originally included the Mouzon map in 'The American Atlas' or, 'A Geographical Description of the Whole Continent of America' as it was also known. There were 2 subsequent editions published over time: One was a French edition published by George L. Le Rouge in 'Atlas Am'riquain Sepentrionale' (Paris, 1777) - Also in two 3 sheet sections. It is in both French and English and includes an inset of the English attack on Fort Sullivan (June 28, 1776). This, third version of the map, was issued in 1794 by Laurie and Whittle, successors to Sayer and Bennett, using the original plates.
Most surviving examples of the map were colored only in outline, if at all. The map covers the coastal area of the both North and South Carolina westward as far as the Appalachian Mountains, Cherokee territory, upper Creek territory and part of Georgia.
In May 1774, it is known that Henry Mouzon advertised a proposal for a corrected map of South Carolina to be issued the following January. When the map was published it included both North and South Carolina and improved upon three previous maps of the area: His depiction of South Carolina is based upon James Cook's  1771 'Map Of South Carolina' as well as Cook's 1773 'Map of the Province of South Carolina' (Thos. Bowen, sculptand). Also, William De Brahm's 'Map of South Carolina and a Part Of Georgia (1757). His depiction of North Carolina is based upon John Colett's 1770 map of North Carolina. Perhaps most importantly, Mouzon based his map on years of personal surveying experience and over a decade spent critically assessing and incorporating previous information: In North Carolina, Mouzon inserted for the first time Tryon County and Pelham County (later called Sampson).
The detail west of the Catawba River is more precise than on any previous map and he also advanced beyond earlier maps in his inclusion of rivers, streams, roads, and physical features like White Oak or Tryon Mountains and Kings Mountain. With regard to South Carolina Mouzon added rivers and Indian settlements west of the Cherokee Indian boundary lines, and his depiction of the eastern region was far more accurate than had been seen on a map before. Mouzon went even further by depicting forts, parishes, bridges, roads, Indian paths, and boundaries, and includes insets of Charleston and Port Royal harbors.
It is no surprise that on the eve of the American Revolution, it's up-to-date geography made it the most widely consulted map of the area used in the war effort." Copies were held by George Washington, The French commander, the Comte de Rochambeau; and the British commander Sir Henry Clinton.
Henry Mouzon, Jr. (1741-1807) was by profession a Civil Engineer and map-maker. He was born the grandson of a Huguenot immigrant to South Carolina who held land grants in Berkeley County. Henry, Jr. was born in Craven (now Williamsburg) County, South Carolina. It is known that he was, on his father's death in 1749, sent to further his education in France and it was likely there that he learned his engineering skills. His first important public commission came in 1771, when he and Ephraim Mitchell (subsequently the Surveyor General of South Carolina) were appointed by Governor Lord Charles Greville Montague to survey the boundaries of the civil districts of South Carolina.
 Ships-Master James Cook RN (not the Captain Captain Cook we all recognize as the explorer and surveyor of the pacific islands, Australia and New Zealand) was a British naval officer who assisted George Gauld in the survey of West Florida. He is known to have produced and had published 'A Draught of West Florida from Cape St Blaze to the River Ibberville with Part of the River Mississippi'(Emanl. Bowen Sculpt). He was court-marshalled from the British navy for an altercation with his Captain in 1776.
- An Accurate Map of North and South Carolina with their Indian Frontiers